Steps in the Training and Development Process

Training and development are an essential part of human resource development. Both training and development imply opportunities created to help employees grow. To create an impactful and successful training program, the first thing is to recognize the goals of the training and identify the desired business impact. The next thing is to analyze employee strengths and skill gaps. It is also essential to communicate with employees to understand their needs and motivation. The last thing is to plan for evaluating the effectiveness and sustaining goals over time.

Determine the Need for Training

With rapid changes, the shift to work from home has increased the need for employee training. Training is required to improve the quality of the workforce, enhance employee growth, keep employees up-to-date with the latest technologies, bridge the gap between planning and implementation, and identify the health and safety measures in the job. Three types of analysis can be used to identify specific training needs. The types of analysis are:

Organizational Analysis

Organizational analysis is the process of reviewing the growth, strategies, objectives, goals, and work environment of an organization. It helps in identifying the weaknesses of the organization and ways to overcome them. This diagnostic process helps in understanding the performance of the organization and look for areas of improvement. Both external and internal factors are taken into consideration that ultimately help the organization to increase its efficiency and effectiveness.

Task Analysis

Task analysis is the process of examining every step involved in completing a task. It also gives a detailed description of the activities performed in each task. It may include elements such as speed, duration, environmental factors, among others. It is used to analyse the purpose of developing the instruction. It includes comparing the actual performance with the standard performance, then identifying the areas of improvement, and finally determining the need for training to overcome the gaps.

Human Resource Analysis

Human Resource analysis is the process of collecting and analyzing HR data to improve critical talent and the workforce performance in the organization. It can also be called talent analysis, people analysis or even workforce analysis. It aims to provide a deeper understanding on employee management for reaching business goals. Since there are ample amount of data available it is important to identify the most relevant ones. Data driven insights help in improving workforce processes and promote positive employee experience.

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Communicate the Purpose of Training

Communication is an essential part of the training process. Employees must be aware of the goals of the organization and the purpose of training. They should know that it will benefit them both in their professional and personal growth. It can help them enhance their already existing skills and update on the new ones, which can help improve productivity. Keeping the employee in the loop will always gain sincere attention from them.

Selection of Appropriate Training Method

Choosing the proper training method might be a daunting process as many things must be considered while selecting the appropriate way. Some of the critical things to consider are:

  • The desired learning outcomes– The employee training goal must be clear to the organization. 
  • The employees who are being trained– When deciding the training methods, keep in mind the job roles and the skills required. 
  • The number of learners and their location– The number of learners and the location of learning (whether home or office) ultimately decide the training techniques’ choice. 
  • Budget– This is an essential element in the decision-making process.

Five Types of Training Methods

 The five types of training methods which can be incorporated in the organization are:

Technology-Based Learning

Technology-based learning is learning promoted through electronic technology. It is computer-based learning that reduces in-person facilitators’ task making the training process more flexible. Employees have the freedom to work at their own pace, and have access to online resources such as videos, audios, workshops, etc. Employees can also access the company’s material aid whenever they want.

On-the-Job Training

On the job training is skill-specific training provided at workspace, required for a particular job role. This training is beneficial for training new hires when they are appointed for a new job role. It helps the newly hired employees to learn the skills for the new role and put them into practice at the earliest. It helps in developing the career of an individual and prosperous growth of the company.

Instructor-led Training

 Instructor-led training is a kind of training that is facilitated by an instructor.  It is a traditional way of in-person training of employees where an individual uses lecture style or presentation.   It allows trainees to interact with each other and thus builds relationships between the co-workers. It offers a real-time feedback and can be adjusted to different learning styles.


Mentoring method of training is training under a senior or more experienced person assigned as a mentor, guide, or a counsellor to the trainee. It also creates development opportunities and builds employer-employee relationships. It is the process of sharing knowledge and information with the other employees.

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Case Study

Case Study is a method of training that enhances trainees motivation. It involves participatory, discussion-based learning where trainees gain skills in communication, critical thinking, and team work. It is a problem based learning where trainees work through a case as a whole or in small groups. This develops analytical skills given in real or virtual workspace scenarios. It is an inexpensive method of training that is practised in multiple disciplines.

Providing Proper Training Material and Active Demonstration

Training materials and active demonstration play the most crucial role in acquiring knowledge during the training process. Training should have content directly linked to the trainee’s job experience. Demonstration of active skills and techniques is essential in the training process. Live and practical demonstrations help in better understanding and attaining the desired results. Role-playing with a participant can be beneficial if the training is about communication skills.

Feedback During Training

Feedback is a precious asset in the process of training. It is a bridge between training and implementation. Constructive feedback motivates trainers to perform the trained actions. It also helps understand the areas that might need improvement during future training processes making it more effective.

Evaluation of Performance Post Training

Once the training is completed, it is necessary to evaluate how training has influenced the trainee’s performance. Some of the ways to evaluate the performance are:

  • Participant reaction and satisfaction– The primary training evaluation method is employee satisfaction. 
  • Knowledge Acquisition– A valid examination following training can determine if the content was learned or not. Quizzes, one-to-one discussions, employee surveys, participant case studies, and official certification exams are some ways to measure the knowledge acquired during the training.
  • Behavioural Application– It is necessary to check if the employees are implementing the skills and abilities imparted during the training. 
  • Measuring Business Productivity– Training helps evaluate the performance by measuring the business improvement.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the steps in the training process?

Training can be viewed as a process comprising five related stages or activities: assessment, motivation, design, delivery, and evaluation.

What are the types of training in HRM?

The important types of training are as follows:
-Induction/orientation training.
-Job Training/in-plant training.
-Apprenticeship/craft training.
-Internship training.

What is the difference between training and the training process?

Training refers to an educational process in which employees get a chance to develop skills, competency and learning as per the post-duty requirements. Development refers to an informative process that mainly helps in understanding the overall growth and improvement of the skills of the employee.

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